PAPER PRESENTED @ SAMUEL ADEMOYEGA UNIVERSITY, OGWA
EDO STAE NIGEIRA, DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY AND DIPLOMATIC
INNOCENT UGOCHUKWU OWUTU CPP, MISN, MSPSP
B.A. (HONS) HISTORY
ADV. DIP SECURITY MGT
M.A. PEACE AND CONFLICT STUDIES
M.SC INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
G.S.M. 08034623057, 08055787078
SECURITY MANAGEMENT CONSULTANT/RESOURCE PERSON
LAGOS STATE UNIVERSITY, ISOLO COMPUS
JUNE 17TH – 20TH, 2012
…we need to educate ourselves again on the fact that tolerance,
cooperation, harmony have always been hallmarks of our
African community lives. We had them before
Christianity and Islam. It is this tolerance that
enabled our forefathers to welcome Christian
and Muslim missionaries. We betray
and dishonuor this legacy when we turn both
universal Faiths today into instruments of war.
(Hassan Kukah, CBAAC, 2007:40)
Peace and security eluded this country from the evil machinations of the British in the amalgamation theory of 1914 where peoples having differences in every aspects of life, were forced together to satisfy British administrative conveniences. The mistake of 1914 has been blamed by various writers, schools and elite Nigerians as the bedrock of ethno-religious conflicts bedeviling this nation. Rival ethnic groups pitched against each other in a fight for power and resources relentlessly from then henceforth.
Colonial authorities noticing the dangers on ground, began constitutional changes which culminated in the Richards Constitution which were designed “to promote the unity of Nigeria, to provide adequately within that unity for the diverse elements which make up the country”.1 After this one, constitutional conferences organized after independence, “the question of an acceptable system of co-existence has been contentious”2
The military seemed to have suppressed the evil connotation of this canker worm with their long stay in politics. But religious aspect of this problem continued to resurface while military administration lasted “for most part of the country’s independence between the years 1966-1979 and 1983-1999 repressing these ethno-nationalist tendencies and maintaining the unity of the country”.3
However, the bottle-up grievances associated with ethno-religion in Nigeria exploded as was witnessed with the return of constitutional democracy in 1999, intently throwing up issues beyond the capacities of the civil government. This circumstances, invariably threatened the peace, security and survival of the country’s long awaited democracy and its corporate existence. Consequently, government not wanting to be seen as weak, adopted condemnable authoritarian use of massive force to deal with this problem. For example Odi Massacre.
Religion with its moral principles and values are expected to direct societies and the lives of its adherents. Christianity and Islam, the two adopted alien faiths in Nigeria, have from their entrant into this society made social welfare services and educational development an important component of their activities. What is worrisome is the violence associated with this “proselytizing religions”.4 From Maitasine uprising of the 1980s to Boko Haram of today, it’s been violence associated with religious beliefs that is almost bringing government to her knees, while peace and security remain elusive.
This paper intends to examine the key concepts of ethnicity, religion, conflict, peace, security and violence. To achieve its overall intentions, the paper has been divided into sections for easy understanding and impact of purpose. Following the above are the causes, effects and solutions of ethno-religious conflicts in Nigeria.
II. Conceptual Understanding
Ethnicity is a universal phenomenon and of human experience in which “people-not merely Africa-tend to pursue power, respect, health, wealth, skills, rectitude, enlightenment unique to each group”.5 It is characterized by “shared nationality, tribal affiliation, religious faith, shared language or cultural and traditional origin and background”.6 According to Okwudiba Nnoli, ethnicity is a social phenomena associated with interactions among members of different ethnic groups and that ethnic groups are social formations distinguished by the communal character of their boundaries.7
However, in another angle, Egosa Osaghae simple describe ethnic situation of a country as the number and character of ethnic groups, the conflicts among them, as well as their class, regional, racial, religious or other correlates which serve to reinforce these conflicts.8 From the foregoing, ethnicity held people together by their beliefs in certain commonality and differing issues as well. That is differences in language, religion, colour, ancestry and culture to which social meaning surrounds and which identity and group formation is derived.
Religion, as far as G.A, Akinola is concerned is traditionally associated with the role of preaching the moral principles and rules that are expected to govern societies and the lives of its members.9 According to R.I. Gofwen, religion is an attempt by man to explain and comprehend issues related to the workings of the supernatural or a system of beliefs and practices by which a group of people interpret and respond to what they feel is supernatural and sacred.10 I see religion as the interaction between it and society which affects social behaviour and influences other institutions of society. But this, in no way, suggests that some people should hide under religion to wreck havoc to the society. In this vein, the practicing and observance of the values of both religions in Nigeria represent one of the surest yardstick for assessing whatever positive influence Christianity and Islam are exercising on morality and values in the society at large.
Peace is an abstract term that cannot be seen physically nor touched. I have argued somewhere that it is a concept that is created to give a general condition when there is absence of adversity and can be perceived without a general rule to measure it”.11 According to Segun Bolarinwa, peace is a condition where there is calm and order in a specific environment, mind or body.12 Likewise, Oke Ibeanu submitted that the nature of peace is not the absence of war or war being the absence of peace, but there can be peace even when there is war. In other words peace is “a process involving activities that are directly or indirectly linked to increasing development and reducing conflict both within specific societies and in the wider international community” 13.
David Francis was of the opinion that “peace is the absence of war, fear, conflict, anxiety, suffering and violence and about peaceful coexistence”.14 In a seminar, I have argued in relation to what J. Galtung 15 called “positive and negative peace”. Positive peace being the absence of unjust structure, unequal relationships, justice and inner peace at individual level, while negative peace refers to absence of violence, war, fear, and conflict at individual, national, regional, and international levels.16
Conflict is the existence of non-compatibility or disagreement between two actors. They can be individuals, groups, organizations or nations in their interaction over issues of interests, values, beliefs, emotions, goals, space, positions, scarce resources etc 17. In psychology, conflict is understood to be “a state in which opposite feelings exist and tug at each other, with regards to a particular goal; or opposition between two or more contradictory needs, motives, wishes, impulses or desires” 18.
Idowu Willaims of the philosophical school gave an understanding of conflict as a pervasive occurrence in human societies the manifestation of this pervasive phenomenon cuts across psychological, political, social and anthropological dimensions and spheres of human existence. It starts at individual level when the person experiences personal conflict, because of many pressures from the groups he belongs and roles he plays in the society.19 Thus, conflicts associated with developing societies such as ours are directly linked to the forces of social transformation as “necessary and inescapable condition in the creation of political order, and is thus intimately bound up with the process of modernization and political development”.20
Security, they say, is every bodies business; the condition or feeling safe from harm or danger, the defence, protection and preservation of core values and the absence of threats to acquired values. For David Francis, security is about the survival and conditions of human existence, about peace, development, justice, whose absence create the condition for conflict and insecurity. 21 It is a direct threat to humans as a result of physical and psychological abuses inflicted upon non-combatant individuals, including children, the aged and women in the environment of armed conflicts. The condition above, Bassey Ate confirmed is characterized by forced exodus of populations, creating refugee flows, genocide, rape of women, ethnic cleansing, organized killing of the unarmed, child soldiering , anti-personal mining of farmlands 22.
Violence is defined by World Health Organization as the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person or against a group or community, which either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, mal-development or deprivation. This definition associate’s intentionality with the committing of the act itself, irrespective of the outcome it produces. Violence often has life-long consequences for victims’ physical and mental health and social functioning and can show economic and social development.23
Ethnic violence is an aggravated conflict among members of ethnic group which involve threat to or actual destruction of lives and property, some authorities have described it as ethnic genocidal war, just to underscore the large-scale loss of lives therein.24 The other aspect of this discourse in religious conflict which is conceptualized here as a specific form of conflict between groups which differed ideologically along religious lines within a pluralistic setting with each striving for political relevance. 35
III. Causes of Ethno-Religious Conflicts
One of the main causes of this problem is mostly the struggle between rival ethic groups or organizations seeking to maintain or gain control of state power. When one group gains access to power, it uses state institutions to distribute economic and political benefits preferentially to their ethnic brethren, discriminating against subordinate group members. Consequently, this aggravates a sense of shared deprivation and strengthens identification with their group, thereby providing a basis for political mobilization along ethnic lines. 26
Ethno-religious conflicts are also caused by historical legacy of mistrust between ethnic rival groups, even biblically speaking. Examples are found among the mistrust in the Middle East, Christian crusades, aftermath of world war 11, Northern Ireland, Serbians and Croatians, Tutsis and Hutus. In our clime, the Christians and Muslims becomes a special case study of this paper. This historical mistrust and hatred are not genetically transmitted but visibly part of immediate reality occasioned by myth, socialization and education.
Having been a victim of this problem, one is toughed by this victim mentally, invariably uniting group members behind their leaders who may have acceded to power-being past victims. Victimized group who are deprived of essentials of life turn to violence, which they direct to their rival group. This feeling of deprivation and unrealized expectations will, naturally, be interpreted as an ethnically motivated injustice.
In Nigeria, indigeneship and settlers division, as Dipo Akowonjo described it, remain the most significant cause of communal violence. This is entrenched division between people considered ‘indigenous’ to an area, and those regarded as ‘settlers’. Settlers are consistently discriminated against in the predominantly Christian Pleateau State. Their rival, the Hausa Fulani Muslim nomads complained that the Christian farmers steal their cattle. One also notices that there are indigenous Muslim ethnic groups who fiercely opposed the perceived expansionist tendencies of the Hausa Fulani. 27
A very potent cause of ethno-religious and political violence in our society is the problem of poverty and unequal access to resources. Despite the oil resources accruing to this country, “at least two thirds of Nigerians live on less than $1 per day”. 28 Writings and commentating in our society laid heavy emphasis on the role of resources in generating violent conflicts, the Niger Delta region presents a classic case of the manifestation of resource based violence. The violence and debate about resource control in this region has exemplified the controversy over resources exploitation, appropriation and management in Nigerian which the amnesty has tamed relatively.
Lending her voice in the argument on poverty, Fatima Ibrahim opined that
religion and ethnicity were the major variables that influenced the 2004 ethno-religious reprisal attacks in Kano State…the youths who are victims of crisis-ridden economy…are easy prey readily available in crises situation as a way of venting their anger on the society through what can be termed as transferred aggression on non-Muslims and non-indigenes in the name of avenging the killings of Muslims in Yelwan-Shendam in Plateau State29.
At this juncture, I will try to review some incidences of ethno-religious conflicts in Nigeria .
VII. Review of Ethno-religious Conflicts
An attempt will be made here to review incidences of ethno-religious conflicts. Though, quite numerous; religion, ethnic and political fault lines periodically erupt into communal violence which have generated sizeable internally displaced populations.
The advert of Christianity and Islam into Nigerian shores is too obvious as to delay us here, but they were made for a competitive and conflictual relationship having been introduced at different times and at different historical epochs. Religious question never blew up during the colonial era with their (Christianity and Islam) ideological hold remaining dominant and exclusive in their respective regions. The same prevailed during post-colonial times, when regional political parties tend to plead on the sensibility of religion in their political struggle for power.
Religious intolerance manifested during the long military hold on power in Nigeria that Bala Takaya said:
Factional religious disturbances and inter-faith
conflicts are recent phenomena in Nigeria. They are more or less the results of a vacuum in partisan political activities occasioned by long-staying military dictatorships 30
To make this discussion clearer about incidences of religious related violent conflicts, graphic details by J.I. Elaigwu is hereby presented.31
|May 1990||Zaria (Kaduna State)||Disturbances in Zaria during which property belonging to mainly Christians were destroyed.|
|December, 18-29, 1990||Yan – Awaki Ward in Kano. (Kano State)||Riots by Maitatsine sect, 4,177 people died extensive destruction of property.|
|October 29-30, 1982||Bullumkutu, Maiduguri (Borno State)||Kala-Kato and Maitatsine…118 people died, extensive damage to property.|
|October 29 -30, 1982||Kano(Kano State)||Muslim demonstrator burnt down Churches.|
|February 27- March 5, 1985||Dobeli Ward, Jimeta-Yola ( Gongola State)||Maitatsine sect, 586 died, wanton destruction of property|
|April 26-28,1985||Pantami Ward, Gombe (Bauchi State)||Maitasine sect, 105 died, Extensive destruction of property.|
|March 1986||Ilorin ( Kwara State)||Muslims and Christians clashed during a Christian procession of Easter.|
|May 1986||Ibadan, University of Ibadan (Oyo State)||Demonstration by Muslim in which they burnt the figure of the Risen Christ in the chapel of Resurrection, University of Ibadan.|
|March 1987||(a)Kafanchan (Kaduna State)||Clashes between Muslims and Christians at the College of Education, Kafanchan… loss of some lives and burning of some Mosques by Christians and native Kajes.|
|(b) Kastina, Funtua, Zaria, Gusau and Kaduna (Kaduna State)||Wave of religious riots in which Muslims burnt down numerous Churches buildings, and damaged property belonging to Christians. Many lives were lost|
|February 1988||Kaduna, Kaduna Polytechnic (Kaduna State)||Religious riots, ostensibly among students, destroyed the foundation wall of Christian Chapel.|
|April 1991||(a) Kastina (Kastina State)||Religious Violence spearheaded by Mallam Yahaya Yakubu, leader of the fundamentalist Shi’tte sect in Kastina. It was a protest over a blasphemous publication in Fun-Times. Several lives were lost and property destroyed.|
|(b) Tafawa (Kastina State)||Started as a quarrel between a Fulani men and a Sayawa meat seller in Tafawa Balewa. Escalated into a full-blown violence and later took the colouring of a religious war in Bauchi. Several lives were lost and property valued hundreds of millions of Naira were destroyed.|
|October 1991||Kano(Kano State)||A peaceful procession initiated by the Izala sect of half Rev. Reinherd Banke from having a crusade in Kano, later degenerate into very bloody religious violence. Thousands of lives were lost and property valued at millions of Naira was destroyed.|
|May 1992||Zangon Kataf, Zaria, Kaduna, Ikara(Kaduna State)||A communal feud between the Katafs and the Hausas later took the dimension of inter- religious war between Muslims and Christians in other major cities in Kaduna State. Several lives and property were destroyed.|
|January 1993||Funtua (Kastina State)||The Kalakato religion sect assaulted the village Head and burnt down a Police Vehicle. Lives and property were also lost.|
|Feb.2000||Kaduna||Conflict engulfed the city between the Christians and Muslims over the implementation of Sharia law. Thousands of lives and property worth Millions were destroyed.|
In addition to the above, Dipo Akowonjo32 tried to present detailed analysis of ethno-religious violent killings with effect from 2001 as shown thus:
v In September, 2001, as many as 1000 people including women and children were massacred in and around Jos in sectarian violence that rocked the city.
v In May 2004 deadly conflict that engulfed the city of Yelwa in Southern Plateau State, over 700 people were killed.
v In November 2008, following LGA election in Jos, over 700 people was massacred in the deadly sectarian killing that occurred in the city.
v On January 19, 2010 over 150 people were killed in sectarian clashes that engulfed Karu Karama, near Jos.
v On March 7, 2010 over 400 people including women and children were massacred in early morning attacks in the village Dogo Nahawa, Zot and Rassat in the Jos LGA of Plateau State.
v Prior to the Christmas Eve of 2010 bombings, which ripped through two Christian neighborhoods in Jos, over 120 people were killed in main and reprisal attack.
v In the Christmas Eve explosions proper, over 80 people were killed and more than 120 others injured.
v On January 7th 2011, eight Muslim youths were waylaid and killed in the village of Barkin Ladi.
v The following day, January 8, 2011, scores of Muslim youths armed with bows and arrows, machetes, disused tyres, petrol and guns Laid siege to Igbo traders trading in Dilimi Market and Bauchi Road, Street Market and killed 48 Igbo traders, 18 of the slain bodies were confirmed to have been deposited at Bingham Teacher Hospital by a health worker.
v In the evening of the same day (08/01/2011) over 14 Muslims were killed in Jos and other surrounding communities, in reprisal attack.
v On January 10, 2011, 11 people (four women and seven children) were killed when Muslims attacked the Christian Village of Wareng in Southern Jos.
I will conclude this section of incidences of ethno-religious violence with the issues of today ,i.e. the Boko Haram. In a paper I presented in Zaria Kaduna State in the month of March 2012, it reads in part:33
In July 2009, security agents battled members of a set known as Boko Haram for 6 days, the violence started after the membership of the sect allegedly attacked a Police Station in Bauchi State Metropolis. Similarly violence was unleashed on the public by members of the sect in the state capitals of Maiduguri and Kano. Furthermore, towns such as Potiskum were also affected. In the cause of the violence between members of sect and the security agents, 1118 people died. In addition, properties including Churches, Mosques, Private homes and Business worth
N782, 594,155.60 were destroyed. The security agencies were able to bring the situation under control and during the process, the sect leader Mohammed Yusuf was killed.
Despite claims by government and security agents that the sect had been totally incapacitated the public were reawakened by yet more attacks and killings by members of the ‘Boko Haram’sect. These events occurred barely a month after the first anniversary of the sects uprising. Members of the sect attacked the main prison in Bauchi State and released over 700 inmates that includes hundred of its detained members. In Maiduguri, several Policemen and prominent citizens have been attacked and many were allegedly killed by the members of the sect. It could be said that remnants of the sect are resurfacing and carrying out reprisal killings for part played by security agencies and other officials in crushing the July 2009 uprising.
III. Socio – Economic effects of Ethno – Religious Conflicts
Ethno- religious conflicts create internal displaced persons. Thousands of people suddenly became refugees in their country or elsewhere beyond their shores. Refugees’ camp life is usually appalling, that is in terms of camp structure, security, food and service distribution, health delivery etc. The consequences of these are high death rates occasioned by diseases and starvation.
There is a serious dislocation of families, husband and wife usually lost contact as a result of unplanned and sudden departure from their previous abode. It also affects the education of children in the families involved. Properties are lost as people are displaced. It is understood that if a refugee can carry some personal effects during forced movement, none can carry fixed assets such as buildings, economic and non- economic crops.
One disturbing effect of this problem is high number of people killed whenever there is ethno- religious crisis. Different sources are coming out with estimates of ethno- religious killings in Nigeria. It has been estimated that since the transition to civilian rule in May 1999, no less than 10,000 lives have been lost to religious based violence. 34 According to another source, “it may be correct to say that over 15,000 Nigerians, including women and children, have been killed since 1999 as a result of unabated ethno-religious violence‘’.35
As Dipo Akowonjo articulated in his paper already mentioned. Ethno–Religious Conflicts have the tendency of:
creating crisis over the question of citizenship, hostility between indigenes and settlers, dehumanization of women and children, eg rape, child abuse, child neglect, Deepening of hunger in the society, atmosphere of political insecurity and instability, declining confidence in the political leadership and apprehension of the system36
Search for Elusive Peace and Security.
Having deposed in the concepts of the paper that peace is an abstract term that cannot be seen physically nor touched but a general condition when there is absence of adversity. Ditto, security being a condition or feeling of safe from harm or danger, that is the defence, protection and preservation of values and absence of threat to acquire these values.
It is then quite disturbing when ethno –religious conflicts tend to redefine these concepts and bring untold hardship to affected citizens of this country. This paper employs ruling elites to deepen the culture of democracy and democratic governance. This is one area that this country has lost giving the long hold of the military on power. Democracy as an alternative to dictatorship will address diversity with democratic principles of “trade off, dialogue, negotiation and consensus – building addressing the tension arising from multi –ethnicity”37.
It is instructive to know that the unitary form of federal system left by the military has been with us since 1999. One of the contentious issues of the counter coup of 1966 was the issue of unitary system the military was trying to practice. In other words, this paper was advocating a true federal system of government based on appropriate devolution of power. This will be the basis addressing the dilemma between individual and group rights.
However, this paper advises government in power to evolve and sustain economic policies and programmes capable of preventing crises and conflicts in society. Present poverty alleviation programmes should be reviewed and made more effective, less wasteful, less divisionary and to reach more Nigerians.
Levels of corruption in the system remain unsolved. Revelations from different probe panels had shown monumental corruption involving government officials. A nation cannot make progress or achieve peace and security in the face of deceit from those saddled with the running of the system. Democratic dividend in terms of basic welfare needs of people, employment and housing cannot be granted in the face of corruption.
Having tried most of these recommendations and we are still struggling as a nation, it is appropriate then, to revisit the evil of 1914 because marriage is between two consenting adults. It can never be by force of government for different peoples to manage to live together. When this is done elusive peace and security will be achieved in Nigeria.
1. I. U. Owutu (2011) “Fourth Republic Constitution Crisis and the Manifestation of
Ethnic Politics in Nigeria,’’ in NIGERIA FORUM, 32 No 8 (forthcoming)
2. M.M. Duruji (2010), ‘’Democracy and the Challenge of Ethno-Nationalism
in Nigeria’s Fourth Republic: Interrogating Institutional Mechanics,‘’ in Journal Of Peace, Conflict And Development UK issue 15 p 92
3. M.M. Duruji (Ibid) p 93
4. G.A. Akinola (2010), ‘’Ambiguous Relevance of Nigeria’s Adopted Alien
Religions‘’ Paper presented @ Institute of African Studies, University of Ibadan P.I
5. A. Attah- Poku (1998) African Ethnicity: History, Conflict Management, Resolution
and Prevention, New York, University Press of America Inc. P5.
6. M.M. Duruji, (op cit) P 94
7. O. Nnoli(1998), Ethnic Politics in Nigeria , Enugu, Fourth dimension Publishing co.
8. E. E. Osaghae (1998), “The Ethnic and class character of political conflict in Liberia,”
in Okwudiba Nnoli (ed) Ethnic Conflict in Africa, Codestria Book series, P 132.
9. G.A. Akinola (opat) P 1
10. R.I. Gofwen (2004), Religious conflict in North Nigeria and Nation Building: The
Throes of Two Decades, 1980- 2000, Kaduna Human Rights Monitor P 32
11. I.U. Owutu (2011) ‘’Peace, Conflict and Security: Managing the Tripartite African
‘’Curse’’ of the 21st Century,’’ Lagos; Nigeria Forum (A Journal of opinion of
World Affairs, V.32 No 11 &12 (forthcoming)
12. J.O. Bolarinwa (2006), PCR 103: Introduction to peace Education Lagos: National
Open University of Nigeria. P2.
13. O. Ibeanu (2006) ‘’Conceptialing Peace,” in S.G. Best, (ed) Introduction to Peace and
Conflict Studies in West Africa, Ibadan: Spectrum Book ltd p 3-14
14. D. Francis, (2006), ‘’Peace and conflict Studies: An African Overview of basic
conflicts,” In S.G. Best, P17
15. J. Galtung (1996), Peace by Peaceful Means, London: Sage Publication
16. I.U Owutu (2010), ‘’Peace keeping in Somalia, ‘A seminal paper presented at the Post
Graduate School of Peace Conflict Programme, Institute of Africa Studies,
University of Ibadan.
17. G.S.M. Okeke (2006), PRC 106: Introduction to Conflict Resolution Process 2, Lagos:
National Open University of Nigeria, P.13
18 O. Makanju (2009), ’’A Primer of Conflict Management”, Lagos: Institute of Security of Nigeria, P1
19. I. Williams (2005), ‘’A philosophical Analysis of Conflict in Africa, in Albert, I.O (ed)
Perspectives on Peace and conflict in Africa, Ibadan: John Archers Publishers ltd, P.13
20 O. O. Oshita (2005), ‘’Conflict dynamics in Multi -Ethnic State: Revivalism and
Brinkmanship in Contemporary Nigeria” in Albert, 1.0, P.91
21 D. Francis (2006), ‘’Peace and Conflict Studies, ‘’pp 22-3
22. B. Ate (2001), ‘’Introduction,” in Akindele and Ate (eds), Beyond Conflict Resolution
Managing African Conflict in the 21st century, NIIA Lagos: Vintage Publishers p.1x
23. I.U. Owutu (2012), “Violence and Secret Cult life in Tertiary Institutions in
Nigeria, ‘’Paper presented at the Visit of District Governor of Lions Club to Ikoyi Lions Club District 404A, Osborne Lagos, pp 1-2
24. E.E. Osaghae (2005), ‘’Violence in Africa: State, Ethnic and Regional Dimensions, ‘’in
1.0 Albert (ed) Perspective on Peace and conflict in Africa , Peace and
Conflict Studies Programme, Institute of African studies, University of Ibadan
John Achers (publishers) ltd, P.11
25 R.I. Goferen P.47
26 J.M. Richard Jr and Shinjinee Sen (1996), ‘’Ethnic Conflict and Economic
Development,’’ School of International Service, American University
27 D. Akowonjo (2011), ‘’Ethno- Religious Conflicts and National Security in Nigeria, ‘’
Paper presented at the 6th Annual Security Conference of Institute of Security, Nigeria, University of Lagos, P 8
28. Ibid P.9.
29. F.O. Ibrahim (2012), ‘’Dimension of Ethnic- Religious crises: An Analysis of the 2004
Reprisal attack in Kano State, ‘’in 1.0 Albert et al (ed), Peace, Security and Development in Nigeria, Abuja: Society for Peace of Studies and Practices, John Achers ltd, P 190
30. B.J. Takaya, quoted in R.I. Godwen, opcit P.65
31. J.I. Elaigwu, quoted in R.I. Gofwen pp 65-67
32. D. Akowonjo, opcit pp.6-7
33. I.U. Owutu (2012), ‘’Security and Safety in Railway Environment: Reflections on
Boko Haram insurgency, ‘’Railway compound Zaria, Kanduna, State, pp 7- 8
34. Ibid p. 6
35. D. Akowonjo, opcit p8
36. Ibid p. 14
37. S.G. Egwu (2006), Beyond ‘’Revival of Old Hatreds, The State and Conflict in
Africa” in S.G. Best, P.436
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